School of Medicine
University of Patras
>University of Patras
Undergraduate Courses

Anatomy II

Semester 3rd ()

Code MED_311

Hours Lectures (4hrs) And Laboratory Exercises(3 Hrs)





  • Skull bones and joints. The cranial cavity. Cervical vertebrae.
  • Cranial nerves.
  • Cervical nerves, the brachial plexus.
  • The autonomic system in the head and neck region.
  • Muscles, arteries, veins and lymph drainage in the head and neck.
  • The scalp (layers, vessels, lymph drainage and innervation).
  • The face.
  •  Parts of the digestive system in the head and neck (oral cavity, tongue, palate, salivary glands, the pharynx, oesophagus).
  • Parts of the respiratory system in the head and neck (nose, nasal sinuses, larynx, and trachea).
  • Endocrine glands of the head and neck (pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroids)
  • The eye, the ear.
  • The temporal fossa, the orbit, the infratemporal fossa, the pterygopalatine fossa, the parotid area, the mandibular joint, the submandibular area.
  •  Trigones of the neck.
  • Surface anatomy of the head and neck.
  • The meninges, venous sinuses. Haemorrhages. The brain.


  • The chest wall, thoracic cavity and diaphragm. Diaphragmatic orifices. The intercostal space (clinical implications on chest drainage). The mediastinum (anatomical structures and organs). Position of the thoracic organs and their relations. Nerve supply and lymphatic’s of the thorax. Clinical implications.
  • The great vessels (ascending aorta, pulmonary trunk, aortic arch, brachiocephalic and subclavian arteries, superior vena cava, the azygos system).
  • The axillary region. The breast. Disposition and relations on the chest wall. The mammary glands. (Blood supply, lymph drainage, clinical importance).
  • Surface anatomy of the thorax. Clinical examination of the chest. Surface anatomy landmarks for the lung and heart. Position of heart valves
  • Radiological anatomy of the thorax. CT/MRI scans – transverse sections. Virtual anatomy.


  • Anatomical structures of the posterior abdominal wall. The muscles and fascias. The great vessels (aorta, vena cava). Position of the kidneys, course of the ureters. The retroperitoneal space.
  • Anatomical structures of the anterior abdominal wall. The muscles and fascias. The rectus sheath. Surface anatomy and regions. Projection of viscera and organs - anatomical landmarks. The inguinal canal. Testicular descent. Inguinal hernias. Clinical diagnosis and principles of surgical corrections.


  • The bony pelvis, pelvic girdle (differences between male and female). The pelvic walls and fascia. The sacral plexus. The contents of the pelvis (male-female). The pelvic diaphragm and perineal body.
  • Blood vessels of the pelvis (common/internal/external iliac artery-vein). Course of the pudendal neurovascular bundle, clinical implications in regional anaesthesia/trauma).
  • Surface anatomy landmarks for pelvic organs –clinical examination. Clinical implications in trauma /inflammation /malignancy /extrauterine pregnancy).
  • Functional anatomy (Incontinence - defaecation, urinary continence, organ prolapse, parturition).
  • The perineum. The anal canal. The ischiorectal fossa and the pudendal bundle. The urogenital diaphragm. The female and male urethra. Superficial and deep perineal pouches. Surface anatomy of the perineum –anatomical landmarks. Clinical implications –surgical procedures (e.g. Episiotomy).
  • Radiological anatomy of the pelvis. CT/MRI scans – transverse sections. Virtual anatomy.





  • The nose. The nasal cavity. The nasal sinuses (description, relations, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage).
  • The pharynx and larynx. Cartilages and fascia of the pharynx and larynx (description, relations, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage). The vocal cords and phonation.
  • The trachea, the bronchi and lungs (description, relations, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage). Lobes and bronchopulmonary segments. The bronchial tree. The pleura and the pleural cavity (description, relations, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage). Respiratory mechanics.


  • The pericardium: fibrous and serous pericardium, the pericardial cavity and sinuses (description, relations, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage).
  • The heart: Surfaces and borders, the chambers of the heart, the fibrous skeleton. Atria and ventricles, the ventricular septum. The conducting system – cardiac autonomic innervation. Blood & nerve supply – the coronary arteries. Clinical implications.
  • Structure of the vessels (arteries, veins and lymph vessels). The microcirculation.
  • Arteries: aortic arch, descending aorta, thoracic-abdominal aorta –branches. Arteries of the upper/lower limb. Arteries of the head and neck.
  • Veins: the vena cava, the azygos system, veins of the upper/lower limb, veins of the head and neck. The portal venous system. Portosystemic anastomoses-clinical cases.
  • The great lymph vessels. Cisterna chili- thoracic duct. Distribution of lymph nodes throughout the body. Clinical correlations.


  • General principles of the endocrine system. The endocrine glands. The endocrine part of the pancreas/ovary/testis. The placenta. The thymus. Diffuse endocrine system – interrelations between the endocrine and the nervous system.
  • Hypothalamus (Description and location, relations, nuclei, the hypothalamic-pituitary system).
  • Pituitary gland (anterior – intermediate – posterior lobe: adenohypophysis - neurohypophysis. (Description and location, blood supply, relations, function).
  • Pineal gland (epiphysis). (Description and location, blood supply, function).
  • Thyroid gland. (Description and location, blood supply, function).
  • Parathyroid glands. (Description and location, blood supply, function).
  • Adrenal glands (cortex –medulla). (Description and location, blood supply, function).


  • The upper digestive system (buccal cavity, tongue, salivary glands, middle and lower part of the pharynx. (Description and location, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage, function).
  • The digestive system in the trunk: oesophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (ascending /transverse /descending colon, sigmoid, rectum). The anal canal. (Description, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage, function).
  • The great glands of the digestive system (liver, pancreas).
  • Clinical examples and clinical problems.


  • The kidneys (size, shape and location). The hilum. Holding of the kidneys in the retroperitoneal space – ptosis. Blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage. The pyelocalyceal system. The ureter (position, course, natural stenotic parts, the ureteropelvic junction, the vesico ureteric junction.
  • The bladder. The bladder wall (detrusor), ureteral trigone, antireflux mechanisms. Blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage. Mechanism of urine storage – voiding.
  • The urethra (male-female). Urethroscopy - cystoscopy (virtual endoscopy).
  • Radiological anatomy (KUB, IVU, ultrasound, CT scan – correlation with transverse sections of the retroperitoneal and pelvic space).
  • Clinical examples and clinical problems (trauma, inflammation, neoplasm, lithiasis, voiding dysfunction).


  • Clinical anatomy of the testis, epididymis, vas deferens. The spermatic cord. Blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage.
  • Testicular descend –the undescended testis. Congenital inguinal hernia –hydrocele. The scrotum.
  • The prostate gland (morphology, zonal anatomy, clinical correlation with hyperplasia – carcinoma). The seminal vesicles-ejaculatory glands –Cowper glands.
  • The penis. The erectile function. Ejaculation. Disorders in erection-ejaculation. Clinical examples and clinical problems.


  • Internal genital organs: the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the vagina (Description, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage, function).
  • External genital organs: The outer part of the vagina, the vestibule, the vulva (Description, blood & nerve supply, lymph drainage, function). Clinical examples and clinical problems.




  • Cranial nerves (nuclei, structure, function).
  • The scull – fossas – foramina.
  • The scull –the brain.
  • The orbit.
  • The infratemporal fossa.
  • The pterygopalatine fossa.
  • The parotid area. The facial nerve.
  • The nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses, the larynx.
  • The pharynx, the buccal cavity, the tongue, the palate.
  • The mandible, the mandibular joint, the submandibular area.
  • The neck (fascias, trigones).
  • The eye.
  • The ear.


  • The thorax.
  • The abdomen.
  • The pelvis –perineum.
  • The cardiovascular system.
  • The respiratory system.
  • The digestive system.
  • The endocrine system.
  • The urinary system.
  • The male genital system.
  • The female genital system.


The ANATOMY II course includes teaching of the basic principles of Clinical, Systematic and Topographic Anatomy necessary for Medical Students. At the end of the course the students should be able to use the acquired knowledge in order to:

  1. Understand the basic principles of disease related to different systems and regions of the body
  2. Combine basic Anatomical knowledge with relevant knowledge of other Clinical topics
  3. Analyze and synthesize clinical information through physical examination of the patient in certain clinical problem settings (Problem-Based Learning)
  4. Use Surface Anatomy principles and landmarks during physical examination
  5. Apply basic Surface Anatomy principles in simple procedures (eg catheterization, paracentesis etc)
  6. Understand the principles of basic surgical procedures and be able to participate in hands-on training during Clinical Surgical electives in the future.

Reading Material

Clinical Anatomy R. Snell
Clinical Anatomy Moore-Dalley-Agur