School of Medicine
University of Patras
>University of Patras
Undergraduate Courses

Pathology I

Semester 4th ()

Code MED_451

Hours Lectures 4 hours, Laboratory 3 hours (per week)




Cell Injury, Cell Death, and Adaptations. Cellular Responses to Stress and Noxious Stimuli. Causes of Cell Injury. Morphologic Manifestations of Cell and Tissue Injury. Mechanisms of Cell Injury. Examples of Cell Injury and Cell Death. Apoptosis. Intracellular Accumulations. Cellular Aging.

Acute and Chronic Inflammation. Acute Inflammation. Morphologic Patterns of Acute Inflammation. Mediators of Inflammation. Chronic Inflammation. Systemic Effects of Inflammation.

Tissue Repair: Regeneration, Healing and Scarring. Control Mechanisms of Cell proliferation. The nature and Mechanisms of Action of Growth Factors. The extracellular Matrix and its Cross-reaction with Cells. Regeneration of Cells and Tissues. Repair by Scarring. Healing of a Skin Wound. Factors that Affect Wound Repair.

Hemodynamic Disorders, Thromboembolism, and Shock. Edema. Hyperemia and Congestion. Hemorrhage.Hemostasis and Thrombosis.Embolism.Infarction. Shock.

Diseases of the Immune System. Innate and Adaptive Immunity. Cells and Tissues of the Immune System. Normal Immune Responses. Hypersensitivity Reactions: Mechanisms of Immune-mediated Injury. Rejection of Transplants. Autoimmune Diseases. Immunodeficiency Syndromes. Amyloidosis.

Neoplasia. Nomenclature. Characteristics of Benign and Malignant Neoplasms. Epidemiology. Carcinogenesis: the Molecular Basis of Cancer. Etiology of Cancer: Carcinogenic Agents. Host Defense against Tumor: Tumor Immunology. Clinical Aspects of Neoplasia.

Genetic and Pediatric Diseases.

Genetic Diseases: Mutations. Mendelian Disorders. Complex Multigenic Disorders. Cytogenetic Disorders.Single-Gene Disorders With Atypical Patterns of Inheritance. The Role of Epigenetics.

Pediatric Diseases. Congenital Anomalies. Perinatal Infections. Prematurity and Fetal Growth Restriction.Respiratory Distress Syndrome of the Newborn. Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Fetal Hydrops.Tumors and Tumorlike Lesions of Infancy and Childhood.Molecular Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders.

Environmental and Nutritional Diseases. General Mechanisms of Toxicity. Environmental Pollution. Effects of Tobacco. Effects of Alcohol. Injury by Therapeutic Drugs and Drugs of Abuse. Injury by Physical Agents. Nutritional Diseases.

General Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Newly Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases. Types of Infectious Agents. Transmission and Dissemination of Microbes. Immune Evasion by Microbes. How Microorganisms Cause Disease. Techniques for Identifying Infectious Agents.


Blood Vessels. Normal Blood Vessels. Congenital Anomalies. The cells of the Vascular Wall and their Response to Injury. Arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. Hypertensive Vascular Disease. Aneurysms and Dissections. Vasculitis. Raynaud Phenomenon. Veins and Lymphatics. Tumors and Tumor-Like Conditions. Pathology of Vascular Intervention.

Heart. Heart Failure. Congenital Heart Disease. Ischemic Heart Disease. Hypertensive Heart Disease. Valvular Heart Disease. Cardiomyopathies and Myocarditis. Pericardial Disease. Cardiac Tumors. Cardiac Transplantation.


Pathology is the link between basic science and clinical medicine and deals with the pathogenesis and the nature of various diseases, as well as the study of the structural, histologic and functional changes that underlie disease.

Specifically, Pathology I studies the fundamental origin of disease and its causes, examines the mechanisms through which alterations are established, and describes the morphologic and functional changes as well as explains the effects of diseases in various tissues and organs.

Students are introduced in the concept of clinicopathologic correlation by studying characteristic cases.

At the end of the educational process the students:

  • Understand the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms of the disease

  • Understand the role of the Pathology Laboratory

  1. In the diagnosis of diseases through analysis and correlation of clinical information with the macroscopic and microscopic changes of the affected tissue.

  2. In the therapy of diseases, especially neoplasia, by the identification of markers related to tumor prognosis or their response in various types of treatments.

  • Are introduced in routine and advanced histologic and molecular techniques

  • Understand and use medical terminology

  • Demonstrate scientific behavior

  • Communicate evidence-based knowledge

  • Acquire cognitive skills indispensable to medical practice (observation, analysis, clinical problem solving)

Reading Material

  1. Greek translation of Robbins Basic Pathology, 9th Edition, by V. Kumar, A. Abbas, J. Aster, Parisianou Publishing, 2016, (original edition 2013)
  2. Greek translation of Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology, 3rd Edition by E. Klatt, Parisianou Publishing, 2018 (original edition 2014)

The PowerPoint presentations of the lectures, and the study guides are uploaded at the eclass platform.

Useful sites


(Webpath the Internet Pathology Laboratory)


(Leeds University Pathology E-learning)





(The Pathology Guy - Online Help)