School of Medicine
University of Patras
>University of Patras
Undergraduate Courses

Histology II

Semester 3rd ()

Hours 1(lect.) 2 (lab.)



ECTS Credits
Course Type
Basic Knowledge
Prerequisite Courses
Teaching and Assessment Language
The Course is Offered to Erasmus Students
Course Webpage (url)
Course Content

1. Digestive system - oral cavity.

  • Overview of the digestive system.
  • Oral cavity and associated structures.
  • Salivary glands.

2. Digestive system - gastrointestinal tract.

  • Overview of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Gastric mucosa. Gastric glands. Epithelial cell renewal.
  • Small intestine. Structure and function. Epithelial cell renewal.
  • Large intestine. Structure and function. Epithelial cell renewal.
  • Rectum and Anal Canal.
  • Clinical correlations.

3. Digestive system - Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas.

  • Liver physiology.
  • Blood supply to the liver.
  • Structural organization of the live. Liver lobules.
  • Hepatocytes, biliary tree, perisinusoidal space.
  • Exocrine pancreas. Duct system.
  • Endocrine pancreas. Pancreatic hormones - function and regulation.
  • Clinical correlations.

4. Respiratory System.

  • Nasal cavities. Respiratory and olfactory epithelium.
  • Paranasal sinuses.
  • Respiratory epithelium, basement membrane, elastic membrane, cartilages and trachealis muscle.
  • Bronchi and Bronchioles. Structure and function.
  • Alveolar epithelium. Surfactant. Alveolar septum and air - blood barrier.
  • Blood supply, lymphatics and nerves.
  • Clinical correlations.

5. Urinary system.

  • Overview of the urinary system.
  • General structure of the kidney. Cortex and medulla. Kidney lobes and lobules. The nephron.
  • Filtration apparatus of the kidney. Renal corpuscle. Glomerular capillaries. Bowman’s capsule - podocytes. Glomerular basement membrane.
  • Juxtaglomerular apparatus.
  • Kidney tubules. Structure and function.
  • Histophysiology of the kidney.
  • Blood supply, lymphatics and nerves.
  • Ureter, urinary bladder and urethra. Transitional epithelium.
  • Clinical correlations.

6. Endocrine organs.

  • Overview of the endocrine system.
  • Hormones and their receptors. Regulation of hormone secretion.
  • Pituitary gland (hypophysis). Structure and function. Blood and nerve supply. Anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). Hormones of the pituitary gland.
  • Pineal gland.
  • Thyroid gland. Thyroid follicle and follicular epithelium. Colloid. Thyroid hormones and calcitonin - production, function and regulation.
  • Parathyroid glands. Principal and oxyphil cells. PTH function.
  • Adrenal glands. Adrenal Cortex - zonation, hormones, function and regulation. Adrenal medulla - cells, function and regulation. Blood supply.

7. Male reproductive system.

  • Development. Structure and function.
  • Testis – Spermatogenesis.
  • Testis - seminiferous tubules. Sertoli cells.
  • Testis - Intratesticular ducts.
  • Excurrent duct system. Epididymid. Ductus deferens.
  • Seminal vesicles.
  • Prostate gland.
  • Clinical correlations.

8. Female reproductive system.

  • Structure. Follicle development and ovulation, Corpus luteum. Blood Supply and lymphatics.
  • Uterine tubes.
  • General structure. Endometrium and cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle. Implantation. Cervix.
  • External genitalia.
  • Mammary glands.
  • Clinical correlations.

9. Eye.

  • General structure of the eye. Layers, chambers and development of the eye.
  • Microscopic structure of the eye. Corneoscleral coat.
  • Microscopic structure of the eye. Vascular coat (Uvea).
  • Microscopic structure of the eye. Retina - layers, specialized regions, vessels.
  • Microscopic structure of the eye. Crystalline lens.
  • Microscopic structure of the eye. Vitreous body.
  • Microscopic structure of the eye. Accessory structures.
  • Clinical correlations.

10. Ear.

  • External ear.
  • Middle Ear.
  • Internal Ear. Bony Labyrinth, Membranous labyrinth. Sensory cells and receptors. Sound perception, blood supply and innervation.
  • Clinical correlations.

Teaching Method

Lectures, tutorials and laboratory work face to face.

Use of Information and Communication Technologies

Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) (e.g. powerpoint, videos, virtual microscopy) in teaching.

Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) (e.g. powerpoint) in teacher-student communication

The lectures content of the course for each chapter are uploaded on the internet (e-class) , in the form of a series of ppt files, where from the students can freely download them using a password which is provided to them at the beginning of the course.

Teaching Organization

Activity Semester Workload
Lectures 14
Tutorials/Laboratory exercises. 28
Hours of private study 33
Total number of hours for the Course (25 hours of work-load per ECTS credit) 75  hours (total student work-load)


Student Assessment

Written examination in Greek at the end of the semester (multiple choice questions, true-false, short answers, clinical problem solving, identification of structures in microscopic tissue photos )
Minimum passing grade:  5 .

The examination documents are retained for 5 years and are readily available to students.


Learning Outcomes

The objective of  Histology II course  is  to lead the student to understand  the microanatomy of  organs and organ systems as a whole  and to correlate structure with function.

By the end of this course the student will have acquired:

  1. Understanding and thorough knowledge of the normal structure of human organs tissue components at the microscopic ultrastructural and molecular level
  2. The ability to correlate normal structrure of human organs and organ systems as a whole with normal function (histophysiology)
  3. The ability to apply this knowledge in order to understand pathogenetic mechanisms and altered tissue morphology of human diseases (Histopathology)
  4. The ability to integrate the information and knowledge obtained from the Histology II course with information from other basic scientific fields and courses (biochemistry, human biology and genetics ecc ,).
  5. The ability to analyze and synthesize acquired knowledge with clinical information in certain clinical problem settings (Problem-Based Learning)

General Abilities

Generally, by the end of this course the student will, furthermore, have develop the following general abilities (from the list above):
Searching, analysis and synthesis of facts and information, as well as using the necessary technologies 
Adaptation to new situations 
Decision making 
Autonomous (Independent) work 
Group work
Excercise of criticism and self-criticism 
Promotion of free, creative and inductive thinking 

Reading Material

  1. Histology: Text and Atlas. Ross Michael. First edition. 2011. K & N Litsas.
  2. Histology (3d edition). L.Gartner, J. Hiatt. Publisher: Books Parisianou. 2011.