School of Medicine
University of Patras
>University of Patras
Undergraduate Courses

Histology I

Semester 2nd ()

Hours 1 (lect.) 1(lab.)



ECTS Credits
Course Type
Basic Knowledge
Prerequisite Courses
Teaching and Assessment Language
The Course is Offered to Erasmus Students
Course Webpage (url)

HISTOLOGY I - Contents.

1. Methods used in Histology.

  • Tissue Preparation.
  • Histochemistry, Immunohistochemistry.
  • Light and Electron Microscopy.

2. The cell.

  • Plasma Membrane.
  • Membranous organelles.
  • Non membranous organelles (cytoskeleton).
  • The cell nucleus.
  • Clinical Correlations.

3. Epithelial Tissue.

  • Overview of epithelial structure and function.
  • Classification of epithelium.
  • Histogenesis of epithelium.
  • Cell polarity. Apical - lateral and basal domains: Morphological and functional specializations - cell - cell and cell - ECM adhesion.
  • Basement Membrane structure and function.
  • Glands.
  • Clinical correlations.

4. Connective Tissue.

  • General structure and function.
  • Connective tissue proper. Lose and dense connective tissue.
  • Connective tissue fibers Extracellular matrix.
  • Connective tissue cells.
  • Clinical Correlations.

5. Cartilage.

  • General structure and function. Cells and extracellular matrix.
  • Hyaline cartilage.
  • Elastic cartilage.
  • Fibrocartilage.
  • Condrogenesis and cartilage growth.
  • Cartilage repair.
  • Clinical correlations.

6. Bone.

  • Overview of bones and bone tissue.
  • General structure and function.
  • Cells of bone tissue.
  • Bone formation.
  • Mineralization.
  • Physiologic role in metabolism.
  • Bone remodeling.
  • Clinical correlations.

7. Adipose tissue.

  • Overview.
  • Adipocytes differentiation, structure and function.
  • White adipose tissue function – regulation.
  • Brown adipose tissue - Structure, function, regulation.
  • Clinical correlations.

8. Muscle Tissue.

  • Overview and classification of muscle.
  • Skeletal muscle - structure, types of fibers.
  • Skeletal muscle. Myofibrils and myofilaments. Sarcomeres and costameres.
  • Skeletal muscle. The contraction cycle.
  • Skeletal muscle. Motor and sensory innervation.
  • Skeletal muscle. Development, repair, healing and renewal.
  • Cardiac muscle. Structure, functional aspects, injury and repair.
  • Smooth muscle. Structure, functional aspects, Differentiation, renewal and repair.
  • Clinical correlations.

9. Nerve Tissue.

  • Overview of the nervous system.
  • Composition of the nerve tissue.
  • The neuron. Morphology and structure. Types, Synapses, Neurotransmitters, Axonal transport.
  • Supporting cells of the nervous system.
  • Origin of nerve tissue cells.
  • Overview of the Peripheral nervous system.
  • Peripheral nerves.
  • Spinal Cord.
  • Sensory receptors.
  • Autonomic nervous system.
  • Clinical correlations.

10. Cardiovascular system.

  • Overview.
  • General features of vessels.
  • Arteries.
  • Capillaries.
  • Veins.
  • Lymphatics.
  • Arteriovenous shunts.
  • Clinical correlations.

11. Blood.

  • Plasma.
  • Blood cells.
  • Haemopoiesis.
  • Bone Marrow.
  • Clinical correlations.

12. Immune system and lymphatic tissue / organs.

  • Overview - General structure and functions.
  • Immune responses.
  • Cells of the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes (Types, surface markers, development and differentiation, regulation - function), Supporting cells, Antigen - Presenting Cells.
  • Lymphatic vessels.
  • Diffuse lymphatic tissue and nodules.
  • Lymph nodes.
  • Thymus.
  • Spleen.
  • Clinical Correlations

Teaching and Learning Methods - Αssessment

Teaching Method

Lectures, tutorials and laboratory work face to face.

Use of Information and Communication Technologies

Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) (e.g. powerpoint, videos, virtual microscopy) in teaching.

Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) (e.g. powerpoint) in teacher-student communication

The lectures content of the course for each chapter are uploaded on the internet (e-class) , in the form of a series of ppt files, where from the students can freely download them using a password which is provided to them at the beginning of the course.

Teaching Organization

Activity Semester Workload
Lectures 14
Tutorials/Laboratory exercises. 28
Hours of private study 33
Total number of hours for the Course (25 hours of work-load per ECTS credit) 75 hours (total student work-load)


Student Assessment

Written examination in Greek at the end of the semester (multiple choice questions, true-false, short answers, clinical problem solving, identification of structures in microscopic tissue photos )
Minimum passing grade:  5 .

The examination documents are retained for 5 years and are readily available to students.


Learning Outcomes

By the end of this course the student will have acquired:

  1. Understanding and thorough knowledge of the normal structure of human cells and tissues at the microscopic ultrastructural and molecular level
  2. The ability to correlate normal structrure and morphology with normal cell and tissue function (physiology)
  3. The ability to integrate the information and knowledge obtained from the Histology I course with information from other basic scientific fields and courses (biochemistry, human biology and genetics, physiology)
  4. The ability to apply this knowledge in order to understand mechanisms of human diseases.
  5. The appropriate background information and knowledge that bridges basic science to clinical science (pathology
  6. The ability to analyze and synthesize acquired knowledge with clinical information in certain clinical problem settings (Problem-Based Learning)

General Abilities

Generally, by the end of this course the student will, furthermore, have develop the following general abilities (from the list above):
Searching, analysis and synthesis of facts and information, as well as using the necessary technologies 
Adaptation to new situations 
Decision making 
Autonomous (Independent) work 
Group work
Exercise of criticism and self-criticism 
Promotion of free, creative and inductive thinking 


Reading Material

  1. Histology: Text and Atlas. Ross Michael. First edition. 2011. K & N Litsas.

  2. Histology (3d edition). L.Gartner, J. Hiatt. Publisher: Books Parisianou. 2011.