School of Medicine
University of Patras
>University of Patras
Undergraduate Courses

Pharmacology II

Semester 5th ()

Hours Teaching 3 hours, Laboratory 0 hours, Tutorial 0 hours , Clinical Training 0 hours (per week)



The purpose of this course is to understand the way in which drug action in individual positions is completed in organs and organic systems. Specifically, it is tried to be demonstrated that the final drug action in organs is component of direct pharmacological actions and compensatory mechanisms (neural and hormonal) which are motivated to restore the pharmacologically disturbed homeostasis. Moreover, it is tried to be demonstrated that the convergence of different positions of drug action in the same organ or functional system implies the ability to bring off a specific therapeutic effect either with the use of alternative pharmacological intervention or with the activation of cumulative/synergistic action between different drugs. Also, it is tried to be understood, based on the above, that therapeutic drug groups consist of drugs with different ways of action. Finally, it is tried to be highlighted that the deviant distribution of the same position of action of the drug in different organs results in adverse actions during the drug application.
  • Pharmacology of the central nervous system: Neurotransmitter systems in the CNS as pharmacological intervention targets. Neurotransmitter systems interactions – Pharmacology of neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Anxiolytics and hypnotics. Antidepressants. Anticonvulsants and centrally acting muscle relaxants. CNS stimulants and antipsychosis drugs. Opioid analgesics. Addiction, dependence and drugs abuse. General anesthetics. Local anesthetics.
  • Cardiovascular system drugs: Αntihypertensive drugs. Pharmacological treatment of heart failure. Antiarrhythmiacs. Drugs against myocardial ischemia. Anticoagulants. Diuretics and drugs that alter the pH of the urine. Antihyperlipidemics.
  • Respiratory system drugs: Bronchodilators. Anti-cough drugs. Expectorants.
  • Gastrointestinal system drugs: Drugs that inhibit gastric secretion. Cytoprotective of the gastric mucosa. Drugs that modulate gastrointestinal motility (antidiarrheals, laxatives etc). Emetics-antiemetics. Medications for inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Drugs that affect the metabolism and function of the endocrine glands: Hormones as medicines. Pharmacology of the hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary. Medications for thyroid disease (anti-thyroid, thyroid hormones). Antidiabetic. Drugs that affect the calcification of bone and calcium homeostasis (calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, bisphosphonates). Adrenocortical steroids as drugs. Sex hormones (replacement therapies, birth control drugs, abortion, anti-androgens and anti-oestrogens as antitumor). Haematopoietic growth factors and vitamins as medicines. Medicines for hyperuricemia.
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs: Molecular basis of chemotherapy.
  • Antibacterials: Folic acid antagonists (sulfonamides, trimethoprim). Beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenem and monobactam). Inhibitors of protein synthesis (aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, etc). Antibacterials that affect topoisomerase II (fluoroquinolones). Various antibacterial. Chemotherapy for specific infections (tubercle bacillus medication, Antifungals. Antimalarial, anthelmintics. Antiviral chemotherapeutic. Anticancer chemotherapy (alkylating agents, antimetabolites, cytotoxic antibiotics, plant derivatives, hormonal anticancer). Immunomodulators. Toxicology and common poison treatment.