School of Medicine
University of Patras
>University of Patras
Undergraduate Courses

Microbiology I

Semester 4th ()

Code MED_441

Hours Lectures 3 hours, Laboratory 3 hours (per week)




General properties of microorganisms: cytology of prokaryotic cells, nomenclature and classification of bacteria, growth and metabolism of bacteria. General properties of fungi, parasites and viruses

Bacterial Genetics: Plasmids, bacteriophages, transposons, gene transfer.

Effects of the environment on microbes: Sterilization, chemotherapeutic agents



Anatomical organization of the immune system: General properties, Cells and tissues of the Immune System.

Innate Immunity: Components: Epithelial Barriers, Phagocytes, Circulating Proteins. Cytokines. Role of Innate Immunity in Local and Systemic Defense Against Microbes, Role in Stimulating Adaptive Immune Response.

Complement: Proteins and activation. Regulation and biological properties.

Antigens - Antibodies: Immunogens - Haptens. Structure and biological properties.

Major histocompatibility system: Structure of MHC Molecules, Properties,Genomic Organization of the MHC. Antigen Processing and Presentation of Antigens to T Lymphocytes.

Antigen receptor and Accessory Molecules of T-lymphocytes: TCR: aβTCR , CD3 and ζ proteins, γδ TCR, Other Accessory Signalling Molecules. Lymphocyte Maturation and Expression of Antigen Receptor Genes. Role of Costimulators in T cellActivation, Signal Transduction by TCR.

T-cell subpopulations: CD4+ / CD8 +, Activation of T Lymphocytes: General Features.

Effector Mechanismsof Cell-Mediated Immunity: Development of Effector T cells, Migration of Effector T cells and other cells to Sites of Antigen. Effector Mechanisms. T-cell memory

Macrophages: Role in T-cell activation and function

B Cell activation: Antigen Recognition and activation. Helper T Cell-Depended Antibody Response. Regulation of Humoral Immune Response.

Immunologic Tolerance: General Features and Mechanisms, TLymphocyte Tolerance, B Lymphocyte Tolerance, Termination of Normal Immune Response. Cytokines.

Disease Caused by Immune Response: Hypersensitivity Reaction I, II, III, IV. Autoimmunity: Immune tolerance and autoimmunity.

Immune response to : Tumors, Infection- Active-passive immunization, Transplantation Immunology.

Congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. Primary deficits in B and T lymphocyte function. Combined immunodeficiencies.

During the laboratory exercises are developed microbiological techniques: Gram staining, Ziehl-Neelsenstaining. Ιdentification of bacteria by biochemical assays, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of bacteria. Principles and applications of immunological techniques applied in the diagnosis of infectious and / or autoimmune diseases: Immunoagglutination, Immunoprecipitations, Immunoelectrophoresis, Nephelometry, Immunofluorescence, ELISA.


The course of Microbiology is a link between basic sciences and clinical medicine and deals with the etiology and pathogenesis of infectious diseases and the functioning of the Immune System.

In particular, this course is an introduction to microbiology that provides a strong grounding in fundamental aspects of the basic biology of bacteria as well as a strong grounding in molecular biology and microbialgenetics. Emphasis is placed on the study of infectious diseases of humans. Additionally, this course (Microbiology I) is an introduction to the fundamental principles of function of the immune system and the understanding of the mechanisms involved in response to infection, or disorders such as immunodeficiency, malignancy and autoimmunity.

In the laboratory exercises, the students are introduced in a. Basic microbiology techniques (stains, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and b. techniques based on antigen-antibody interaction that are used in the clinical laboratory for diagnosis of infection, autoimmunity or immunodeficiency.

At the end of the educational process the students:

  • Understand the role of the immune system in disease protection and pathogenesis of immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorders.
  • They are trained to communicate effectively using the correct terms describing the immune response and its mechanisms of regulation.
  • They learn about assays and techniques employed in research and clinical laboratories to develop technical understanding and clinical interpretation of results.
  • They develop scientific behavior and acquire cognitive skills in solving the clinical problem.

Reading Material

Greek translation of IMMUNOLOGY 2nd edition, 2012, BY Goldsby R., Kindt T., Osborne B., Kuby J.

ISBN: 978-9963-716-14-2



Power point Immunology lectures - e-class