School of Medicine
University of Patras
>University of Patras
Undergraduate Courses

Biology II

Semester 2nd ()

Code MED_211

Hours Teaching 3 hours, Laboratory 0 hours, Tutorial 0 hours , Clinical Training 0 hours (per week)



The main goals of the course include: (a) understanding of the key concepts of medical molecular genetics and the arguments supporting its fundamental contribution to clinical medicine, (b) understanding, in particular, the concepts of the molecular basis of genetic disease and (c) the value of using advanced molecular genetics, cytogenetics and recombinant DNA technologies for tackling issues on how the human genetic composition causes or is associated with the manifestation of genetic (genic and chromosomal) disorders. The teaching material of the course deals with the basic concepts and processes associated of the molecular genetic background of single-gene and multifactorial pathogenicity, cancer genetics, the patterns of mendelian inheritance, the nature of genetic transmission and predisposition of multifactorial disorders, the genetic variation, population genetics and evolutionary mechanisms.

The following topics are included:

  • Introduction to medical genetics

  • Recombinant DNA technology

  • Patterns of monogenic disease inheritance

  • Genetic diversity. Polymorphisms of genomic DNA as disease markers

  • Polygenic/multifactorialdisorders

  • Models of genetic diseases:molecular pathology 

  • Genomic Medicine:  The contribution of human genomics in biomedicine

  • Clinical cytogenetics:autosomal-sex chromosome aberrations; methods of analysis

  • Regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, genetics of cancer 

  • Genetic evolution

  • Population genetics


BIOLOGY II is the introductory course on the current concepts of medical genetics in association with data and information recently developed due to the powerful technologies and molecular tools for the analysis of the genetic material and the cell, the high-throughput technologies for genome analysis and the evaluation of omic data by bioinformatics tools. Teaching material aims to introduce students in the basics of medical genetics, in methodologies of analyzing the genetic material (at the gene or chromosome level) and cells, in order the student to understand the structure and function association, the nature of genetic variation, and the patterns of genetic information transmission and its contribution with the phenotype or the clinical picture of the patient. This course offers an important conceptual framework for understanding in depth the subject of courses and clinical training offered in succeeding semesters dealing with disease pathogenesis, manifestation and treatment.

Reading Material

  1. Thompson & Thompson “Genetics in Medicine” RL Nussbaum, RR McInnes, H.F. Willard, 7th Edition, Translation in the Greek language, 2nd Edition, Broken Hill Publications. ISBN: 978-960-489-062-0.

  2. Genetics in Medicine, George H. Sack, the Greek language edition, (2002), Editor: Parisianos’ Scientific Editions. ISBN:960-394-141-7.

  3. “Laboratory protocols and resources” booklet, authored by the faculty members of the Lab. of General Biology, U. of Patras Publications Centre, Patras.

  4. “Small group teaching”  booklet, authored by the faculty members of the Lab. of General Biology, U. of Patras,Publications Centre, Patras.